Poor posture and poor ergonomics lead to a pattern of tight and weak muscles throughout the trunk. Most commonly seen is anterior head carriage, tight upper traps and weak shoulder blade stabilizers.
Joints in the spine begin to degenerate causing pain with movement and can lead to arthritic changes in the spine. Majority of facet problems occur in the neck followed by the low back.
A spinal disc is like a jelly donut. When a bulge occurs, the disc develops a weak spot and pushes out beyond the normal perimeter. A bulging disc generally only causes symptoms when it impinges upon surrounding nerve tissue. A herniated disc occurs when the weak area is broken by the center of the disc (the jelly of the donut) pushing outward. Both injuries are most commonly seen at L4/L5 or L5/S1.